The Golden Retriever Lab Mix breed, also known as a Goldador, is a cross between two of the most popular and well-loved dog breeds in the world. This mixed-breed tends to inherit their parent’s good temperament. They are friendly, energetic, and highly trainable.
The Labrador Golden Retriever Mix is a large and athletically built dog with a short, dense, water-resistant coat. They range in size from around 59 to 84 pounds (on average) with the females on the lower end of the spectrum.
This mixed breed is generally a healthy one with a few potential health issues to keep in mind. The average life expectancy is about 10 to 12 years based on the average lifespan of the parent breeds.
Being born from two large and bouncy breeds, the Goldador makes a good pet for active families who will have plenty of time to play with their four-legged friend.
In this article, we’ll talk about the Goldador’s lineage, expected general appearance, and behavior, as well as possible health problems.
People Often Ask…
- Do Goldadors shed?
- How do I find a Goldador Rescue?
- What are Goldador dogs?
- What is a golden retriever and lab mix called?
What’s In This Guide?
- Golden Retriever Lab Mix At A Glance
- In-Depth Golden Retriever Lab Mix Breed Review
- Golden Retriever Lab Mix Training And Care
- Pros And Cons Of Getting A Golden Retriever Lab Mix
Golden Retriever Lab Mix: Breed At A Glance
- Popularity: A designer breed, mixing two of the most popular dogs in America
- Purpose: Service dogs, therapy dogs, show dogs, hunting dogs, family pet
- Weight: Averages of 55 to 70 pounds (females), 65 to 80 pounds (males)
- Temperament: Friendly, smart, and loyal
Golden Retriever Lab Mix Breed Review: Contents
- History and original purpose of the Golden Retriever Lab Mix
- Fun fact about Golden Retriever Lab Mixes
- Golden Retriever Lab Mix appearance
- Golden Retriever Lab Mix temperament
- Training and exercising your Golden Retriever Lab Mix
- Golden Retriever Lab Mix health and care
- Do Golden Retriever Lab Mixes make good family pets?
- Rescuing a Golden Retriever Lab Mix
- Finding and raising a Golden Retriever Lab Mix puppy
Origin Of The Golden Retriever Lab Mix
Origins Of The Golden Retriever
The Golden Retriever breed hails from England and Scotland, where medium-sized retrieving dogs were needed for bird hunting both on land and in the water.
There is some debate as to the exact origins of the Golden Retriever, however, historical documents of Lord Tweedmouth indicate that he bred the Golden Retriever in Brighton in the late 1800s.
The American Kennel Club (AKC) formally recognized the Golden Retriever as a member of the sporting group in 1925.
While they still make good hunting dogs, they also excel in obedience classes, field trials, and as guide and service dogs.
We’d also be remiss if we neglected to mention the Golden’s popularity as a family pet.
They are normally wonderful with children and other dogs.
Origins Of The Labrador Retriever
The Labrador Retriever breed was first developed in Newfoundland, Canada, where smaller, waterfowl hunting dogs were mated with Newfoundland dogs.
The resulting offspring led to the development of the Labrador Retriever that we know today.
The Lab was recognized by the AKC as another sporting breed in 1917. Today’s Labradors are still used as hunting dogs, but they’re also often used as service dogs.
Like Golden Retrievers, they make amazing seeing-eye dogs, search and rescue dogs, and therapy dogs.
The Origins Of The Golden Retriever Lab Mix
There is no specific record of the Golden Retriever Labrador origins, but we do know that these dogs have been being mixed for a long time, at least informally.
As two working breeds, gamekeepers and those involved in field sports have been mixing the two working dogs for generations.
What we do know is that there has been a deliberate breeding program, at least among service dogs, for a few years now.
Fun fact: The Guide Dogs For The Blind Association state that they are the most successful guide dog of all! You can’t get much higher in praise than that.
What To Expect From A Golden Retriever Lab Mix
A Goldador is a mixed breed dog that is the product of breeding a purebred Golden Retriever with a purebred Labrador Retriever.
Both parent breeds are considered to be gentle, friendly, loyal, and highly trainable. We’re not sure that you’ll find a more suitable family dog than a Golden Retriever Lab.
You’re also not likely to find a better working dog, for many roles. Both Goldens and Labs are known for their excellence in hunting, therapy, and service work.
With mix breeds, you can never be certain what physical or temperament characteristics your dog will inherit from which parent, and there are no guarantees as to how your dog will turn out.
Golden Retriever Lab Mix Appearance
Breed appearance goes here: Size, height, weight, shape & structure, hair length, coat colors, coat patterns, differences between types where appropriate. Add additional subheading if needed.
If you’re not prepared to handle a medium to large-sized dog, then this dog is not for you.
Based on the expected height and weight of the Golden Retriever and Labrador Retriever, a Golden Lab Mix can weigh up to 80 pounds.
Both breeds are almost identical in size with the females being a bit smaller and weighing 55 to 70 pounds. The males tend to range from 65 to 80 pounds.
Golden Retriever Lab males can measure up to 24.5 inches tall at the shoulder. Females will most likely mature to 23 inches or less.
But, don’t let their larger size intimidate you or your family. If you end up with a 24.5 inch tall, 80-pound Goldador, you are getting a lot of love and affection!
Golden Retriever Lab Color And Coat
Like any mixed-breed dog, Golden Retriever Lab puppies may come out looking more like a Labrador than a Golden Retriever, or vice versa.
These puppies could come out looking like a black, yellow, or chocolate colored Lab, or they could be born with a light or a dark golden coat of a Golden Retriever.
Some puppies will come out looking like an equal mix of each parent.
If Golden Retriever Lab puppies closely resemble their Labrador parent, then they may be born as one of the following:
- Black Goldador
- Chocolate Goldador
- Yellow Goldador
If the puppies closely resemble their Golden Retriever parent, then they may be born as one of the following:
- Dark Golden Goldador
- Golden Goldador
- Light golden Goldador
Although the Golden Retriever has a longer coat with some feathering, the Labrador Golden Retriever Mix always inherit the Lab’s thick double coat.
The double coat has a soft undercoat below a rough top coat that is water resistant.
Golden Retriever Labrador mixes may have their Lab parent’s short coat length. Or they may exhibit a slightly longer and wavier version of their Golden parent’s coat, but without as much feathering as a purebred Golden. Either way, their coat will be fairly low maintenance.
Golden Retriever Lab Mix Temperament
Since this is a hybrid or mixed-breed dog, it’s almost impossible to predict the exact temperament of every Goldador puppy.
With designer breeds like the Golden Retriever Lab, you can only make an educated guess about their temperament based on the general demeanor of their parents as well as the temperament of the parent breeds as a whole.
This means that one puppy may more closely favor the Labrador’s temperament. While another puppy from the same litter may have a happy mix of each parent breed’s personality traits.
Golden Retriever Lab Mix Personality
Golden Retriever Labrador puppies will grow into high-energy adults with a love for playing and a passion for retrieving! (If you don’t love playing fetch with your dog, this breed will not be right for you.)
As highly sociable dogs, neither Labs nor Golden Retrievers do well in isolated settings.
If they are left alone a lot, they have the potential to become very destructive to your home. They will chew out of boredom or anxiety.
Another thing to keep in mind if you’re looking to get a Golden Retriever Labrador is that they can inherit the Lab’s excitability.
As many Lab lovers know, these dogs do not know a stranger and also aren’t afraid to show how excited they are about meeting new faces!
Not only will this dog greatly benefit from obedience training to keep them from jumping on guests, but their highly intelligent and “aim to please” nature will also allow them to excel in the obedience arena.
Finally, let’s not forget that because both Golden Retrievers and Labradors are retrievers, their noses (and desire to chase after small and fleeting creatures) could lead them into mischief if they aren’t kept in a confined space when allowed outside.
Golden Retriever Lab Mix Socialization
Socialization from an early age is important for any breed, including the Golden Retriever Lab. Even though it hails from overly friendly and sociable breeds, there are still no guarantees to the temperament of your dog.
Since training and socialization are both best started early on, puppy training classes can be a great way to both train and socialize your puppy at the same time.
Take a look at our articles for more information on socialization:
- 12 Great Place To Socialize Your Puppy
- How to Socialize Your Labrador Puppy
- How to Socialize An Older Dog
Training And Exercising Your Golden Retriever Lab Mix
Golden Retriever Lab Mix Training
This breed has an easygoing and eager to please temperament that helps make them highly trainable. The parent breeds have a long history as service dogs, bomb detection dogs, hunting dogs, and now therapy dogs.
It is advised to start training early, right from 7 or 8 weeks old. Obedience classes can not only help create a well-mannered dog but also strengthens the bond between the dog and owner.
For more training tips take a look at these articles:
- What Is The Best Age To Start Training A Lab Puppy?
- Best Dog Training Methods
- Puppy Potty Training Schedule
Golden Retriever Lab Mix Exercise
Your Goldador is going to need plenty of exercise. Both breeds are highly active with tendencies towards destructive behavior when they get bored or have pent up energy.
As a very social breed, they do best as indoor dogs, but with a large, fenced in yard to run around. In addition to self-exercise, they need walks or other forms of daily activity with their owners.
A Labrador Golden Retriever Mix makes a great companion for jogging, hiking, or cycling. This is a breed that also loves to swim.
Canine sports, like agility, obedience trials, and tracking, are a great way to keep your dog physically active, mentally stimulated, and out of trouble.
Exercise is especially important for the health of this breed since both Golden Retrievers and Labrador Retrievers have a tendency to develop elbow and hip dysplasia. Weight management is one way of combating these joint problems.
Golden Retriever Lab Mix Health And Care
First off, all pedigree dog breeds are inbred to some extent. There is a measure of the level of inbreeding present in any population of animals. That measure is called the coefficient of inbreeding COI.
The higher the COI, the greater the risks of health issues arising specifically from inbreeding. In general, health problems start to emerge if the COI is much greater the 5%.
In a crossbreed such as the Goldador, the COI is usually much lower than it is in a purebred dog, and this is a good thing
To begin to look at the health and care of a Goldador we first need to consider the inherited health risks from both breeds (Labrador and Golden Retriever):
Labrador Retrievers are prone to a few hereditary health conditions and joint problems, as well as some health issues common to most dogs. Some of these common, general health conditions include ear infections and dermatitis.
Labs are more prone to ear infections due to the amount of wax-producing cells they have in their ears. Scratching, sensitivity, and redness are all signs of infections, and can generally be treated with medication from your veterinarian.
Skin issues like dermatitis, are also common in many breeds. If your dog is biting, licking, or scratching at an area incessantly, they may need a special shampoo or skin treatment from your vet.
Let’s take a look at some of the hereditary health issues know to the Labrador.
Hip And Elbow Dysplasia
Labradors have a high risk of developing hip or elbow dysplasia.
Joint dysplasia is caused by structural problems within the joint and can lead to pain and inhibit mobility.
Elbow dysplasia occurs when a piece of bone or cartilage breaks off and floats around in the joint. This condition can affect dogs of any age, even puppies 4 to 6 months old. In turn, elbow dysplasia can lead to osteoarthritis.
Hip dysplasia is caused when the joint does not fit together correctly, causing friction and grinding in the joint. With time, the hip joint wears down and impedes mobility.
Signs of dysplasia include lameness or looseness in the affected leg(s), decreased ability to run, jump, or climb stairs, pain, stiffness, and decreased range of motion. This condition is genetic, but weight management and exercise play a role as well.
Hip Dysplasia cannot be corrected, but treatment may make your dog more comfortable or prevent further deterioration of the joint. Treatment can include anti-inflammatories, weight management, specific exercise requirements, surgery, and physical therapy.
Both elbow and hip dysplasia can be diagnosed by X-ray imaging, so the parents can be screened for this condition. Use a breeder than conducts thorough health checks and adheres to ethical breeding practices.
Gastric Dilation (Bloat)
This condition occurs when the stomach balloons up to three times its normal size and twists in a way that obstructs blood flow and the exit paths from the stomach. Therefore, food and gas get trapped in the stomach.
This is a painful and serious condition that requires immediate medical attention. Death can occur within hours if left untreated.
Signs of bloat include pacing or inability to lie down, distended stomach, inability to vomit, foamy saliva, and panting. If you notice any of these, contact your veterinarian immediately.
There is no genetic test that can identify this condition. As a Lab owner, it is important to know the signs of this condition so you can recognize the issue quickly in your pet.
Progressive Retinal Atrophy
Labrador Retrievers are genetically predisposed to an eye disease called Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA). This disease is degenerative and will eventually lead to blindness.
Signs often start from 3 to 9 years of age and within 1 to 2 years from onset, most dogs are completely blind. PRA is not a painful condition and is difficult to detect early on.
There is no cure, however, genetic testing is available and a good breeder will not breed a dog with this disease. Ask a breeder for evidence of PRA testing.
Labs are a breed prone to cataracts. Cataracts occur when the lens of the eye clouds over, resulting in vision impairment or blindness. This can be caused by a genetic predisposition, an eye injury, or diabetes.
Cataracts can usually be removed with surgery. Watch for a cloudy film over the eyes and if your dog starts to bump into things or walk into furniture.
Hereditary cataracts can be screened for, so check with your breeder for proof of breed parent optical examinations.
Exercise Induced Collapse (EIC)
EIC is another concern with Labrador Retrievers. This condition can exist in healthy looking, fit dogs and is only evident with intensive bouts of exercise.
These dogs can handle mild to moderate exercise, but after only 5 to 15 minutes of intense activity, they start to experience extreme weakness in their back legs and can collapse. If a dog collapses they are awake but unable to move.
Symptoms above will continue to worsen for 3 to 5 minutes, but most dogs recover after about 10 to 20 minutes of rest. This condition may not be evident right away and can take up to five years to present itself.
Studies have determined this to be a recessive genetic disorder that can only be passed down when both parents are carriers. Since about 30% of Retrievers are carriers, it is important that you use a responsible breeder that has proof of testing for this genetic mutation the parents.
To help minimize the likelihood of hereditary health issues in your new pup, check that your breeder has followed the recommended testing for the Labrador Retriever breed:
- Hereditary Nasal Parakeratosis (HNKP)
- Centronuclear Myopathy (CN)
- Hip and Elbow Evaluation
- Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA)
- Exercise Induced Collapse (EIC)
- Hereditary Cataracts (HC)
Golden Retriever Health
Golden Retrievers have some of the same hereditary health risks that Labradors do. They are also prone to hip and elbow dysplasia, progressive retinal atrophy, and hereditary cataracts. Golden Retrievers have a few other health conditions that are common to this breed.
While not rampant in this breed, there is a small risk of Golden Retrievers having Subvalvular Aortic Stenosis (SAS).
This is a congenital heart disease that is the result of a narrow aortic valve, which puts additional stress on the heart as it attempts to pump out blood. This can lead to heart failure in the worst case scenarios.
One of the problems with SAS is that most dogs do not show symptoms. In mild cases, the only sign may be a heart murmur and in more severe cases the signs tend to include lethargy, fainting, exercise intolerance, and shortness of breath.
The condition can be diagnosed with chest X-rays, an echocardiogram, and an ECG. It is treated with medication or surgery. In mild cases, medication is often necessary.
A recent study in 2019 has concluded that this condition is recessively inherited in Golden Retrievers. It also determined that an echocardiogram was the most reliable diagnostic test for this condition and recommends breeders have a thorough cardiovascular examination, including an echocardiogram, done on all dogs intended for breeding.
This eye condition is caused by inflammation in the uveal tract of the eye. It can lead to blindness if left untreated. It’s an inherited condition in Golden Retrievers.
Signs are often minimal, and unfortunately, the disease goes undetected until more advanced stages. The subtle signs to look for are redness in the eyes and minimal drainage from the eyes. With early detection, the level of vision can sometimes be maintained.
There has been a noticeable increase in the prevalence of cancer in Golden Retrievers and a study in 2018 found that 65% of the Golden Retrievers in their mortality study, had passed away from some form of cancer.
This has become a hot topic in the canine world with a lot of speculation as to why cancer is affecting the Golden Retriever to such a degree.
Some studies have looked at spay and neutering as a factor, while others have speculated it comes from the long history of close inbreeding.
There is no certain, single cause, or gene linked to this phenomenon at this time.
Some potential signs of cancer can include loss of appetite, unusual odor, masses or lumps, bloating, difficulty breathing, weight loss, and lethargy. If you observe these symptoms in your dog consult with your veterinarian.
Recommended testing for Golden Retrievers includes:
- Hip and Elbow evaluation
- Cardiac Exam including an echocardiogram
- Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA)
- Hereditary Cataracts (HC)
- Ophthalmological exams (OFA & ECR)
Golden Retriever Lab Mix Health
Golden Retriever Lab mixes are at risk of inheriting health issues common to either parent breed. They are most likely to inherit health problems that are common to both parent breeds.
Ensure that your breeder has screened for PRA, hip and elbow dysplasia, and hereditary cataracts before you bring your new bestie home with you. These conditions plague both parent breeds and your puppy would be at high risk.
Choose a breeder that has proof of testing for all breed recommended tests for both parents to help increase the likelihood of bringing a healthy puppy home.
Cancer and bloat are two conditions that your mix breed dog could inherit. Unfortunately, they cannot be screened for in the parents. Know the signs of these conditions and watch for them in your dog.
There is some evidence that the risk of bloat decreases with a varied diet and small, more frequent meals, rather than once a day feeding. Note that this was found to decrease, not eliminate the risk altogether.
Golden Retriever Lab Mix Life Expectancy
Designer breed dogs generally live about as long as their parent breeds. Therefore, a Labrador Golden Retriever Mix can be expected to live for around 10 to 12 years.
Chocolate Labradors have been found to have around a 10% shorter lifespan than other Labs and also a higher rate of ear and skin infections. A Chocolate Lab-Golden Retriever mix may have a slightly shorter life expectancy than other mixes within this breed combination.
Golden Retriever Lab Mix Shedding
Your new friend is going to shed, sometimes a lot. Both breeds shed and Golden Retrievers heavily shed their coat with the change of seasons twice a year. The rest of the year expect a moderate level of shedding.
Golden Retriever Lab Mix Grooming
As all Golden Retriever Labrador mixes have the Lab’s double coat, they will need weekly brushing, likely more during shedding season.
Do Golden Retriever Lab Mixes Make Good Family Pets?
Both parent breeds are popular family pets due to the friendly, loyal, and gentle yet playful nature of these dogs. They are known for getting along well with children and other animals.
Labrador Golden Retriever Mixes respond well to training and can be well mannered enough to work as service dogs and therapy dogs.
This mix breed makes a great family pet for those families with space and time to meet this dog’s exercise requirements. As a large and excitable dog, this may be a better pet for families with older children, as a rambunctious Goldador may unintentionally knock over smaller children.
Here are some other mixed dog breeds to consider if you are interested in a Golden Retriever Labrador mix.
For more Golden Retriever or Labrador mix breeds check out these articles:
- Golden Retriever Mix: Discover The Most Popular Golden Crossbreed Dogs
- Lab Mix: Labrador Cross Breeds
- Labrador Retriever Mix: Which One Is Right For You?
Rescuing a Golden Retriever Lab Mix
If you prefer to adopt or rescue your forever friends, then we suggest looking at your local animal shelters as well as various Golden Retriever and/or Labrador specific rescues.
Although some rescues focus on finding homes for animals of a single breed (usually in an effort to find homes for retired show or breeding stock), some rescues do take in mixed breeds related to their primary breed and place them for adoption.
It may be hard to find Golden Retriever Lab Mix breed puppies at a rescue. Many of the designer dogs that end up at rescues are adults or seniors, like a retired breeding stock that has been pulled from puppy mills.
Golden Retriever Lab Mix Breed Rescues
- Golden Retriever Freedom Rescue
- Retrievers And Friends Of Southern California
- Save A Lab Rescue
- Sooner Golden Retriever Rescue
Finding a Golden Retriever Lab Mix puppy
Since the Goldador is a popular designer breed, you probably won’t have to work very hard to find a breeder near you with Golden Retriever and Labrador Retrievers ready to cross for puppies.
Goldador prices vary from breeder to breeder based on how much value they place on their dogs. Especially if their dogs are competitive and not exclusively bred as family pets.
Make sure you pick an experienced and ethical breeder that has carried out all the health tests relevant to both breeds and has looked for Golden Retriever lines that lived longer with lower than average rates of cancer.
An older Golden Retriever stud dog may be ideal as he is more likely to have avoided the cancer gene.
A responsible breeder is your best option for a healthy puppy. Avoid pet stores and online ads where the dogs have a much higher likelihood of health issues and often have a more challenging temperament.
You can find out how to avoid puppy mills and how to buy a healthy puppy in the extensive puppy search guide on our sister site. You can also find out how to buy a healthy puppy in Pippa’s book Choosing The Perfect Puppy.
Golden Retriever Lab Mix Breeders
There are always a number of unethical breeders with bad breeding practices. Especially for designer dogs. These breeders focus on financial gain rather than the health and wellbeing of the dogs they produce.
When you are looking for a breeder, look for someone who cares about the wellbeing of the puppies they are selling. Plus, they should ask you questions to make sure this breed is a good match for you.
Visit the breeder and see the environment your puppy lives in. Ensure that it is clean and well maintained and that the puppies all look active and healthy.
Ask to see the parents to ensure they look healthy and to observe their temperament. Well treated dogs should be friendly and not aggressive or anxious.
Golden Retriever Lab Mix Products And Accessories
Preparing for a puppy is a long process. You’ll want them to have something to chew on that isn’t your favorite pair of shoes. Here’s some helpful information on toys for large breeds and active dogs:
- ”Best Toys For Golden Retrievers That Love To Play”
- ”Indestructible Dog Toys”
- ”Interactive Dog Toys”
- ”Best Dog Toys For Large Breeds”
Is A Golden Retriever Lab Mix Right For Me?
A Golden Retriever Lab mix is a loveable but bouncy breed that has a few health concerns and breed-specific needs to consider.
- A few potentially serious health issues
- A sociable dog that doesn’t do well when isolated
- Is prone to destructive behaviors without sufficient exercise and stimulation
- A large and active breed that needs space to run around
- Requires a lot of exercise
- Friendly, social, and loyal
- Great family pet, service dog, or therapy dog
- Gets along well with other animals
- A good companion for active individuals or families
- Highly trainable
- Lower risk of health issues arising than purebred dogs
In conclusion, this breed is a bundle of energy and affection that is ideal for an active family with a yard and lots of time to walk and play with their furry family member. If you don’t mind a little hair, this gentle giant could be the pet for you!
Your Golden Retriever Lab Mix
Do you have a Golden Retriever Lab Mix?
We’d love to hear all about them in the comments below.
References And Resources
- Adams, V. J. et. al. “ Evidence of longer life; a cohort of 39 labrador retrievers.” Veterinary Record.
- Animal Medical Center of Southern California. 2019.“Exercise Induced Collapse Syndrome in Labrador Retrievers.”
- American Kennel Club (AKC)
- Barnette, C. 2019. “Aortic Stenosis in Dogs.” VCA.
- Beynen, A. 2019. “Diet and canine gastric dilatation.” Dier-en-Arts.
- Biomed Central. 2018. “Labrador retrievers at risk of various health problems.”
- Guerra, R. et. al. 2018. “Cataracts in Labrador Retriever and Jack Russell Terrier From the United Kingdom: A Two-Year Retrospective Study.” Topics in Companion Animal Medicine.
- Kent, M. S. 2018. “Association of cancer-related mortality, age and gonadectomy in golden retriever dogs at a veterinary academic center (1989-2016).” PLOS ONE.
- Llera, R. et. al. 2019. “Progressive Retinal Atrophy in Dogs.” VCA.
- McGreevy, P. D. et. al. 2018. “Labrador retrievers under primary veterinary care in the UK: demography, mortality and disorders, Canine Genetics and Epidemiology.” Canine Genetics and Epidemiology.
- O’Neill et al. 2013. “Longevity and Mortality of Owned Dogs In England.” The Veterinary Journal.
- Northwest Animal Eye Specialists. 2007. “Golden Retriever Uveitis.”
- Ontiveros, E. S. 2019. “Congenital Cardiac Outflow Tract Abnormalities in Dogs: Prevalence and Pattern of Inheritance From 2008 to 2017.” Frontiers in Veterinary Science.
- Pepper, Jeffrey. 2015. “The Origins of the Golden Retriever Revisited.” The Golden Retriever Club of America.
- Tonomura, N. et. al. 2015. “Genome-wide Association Study Identifies Shared Risk Loci Common to Two Malignancies in Golden Retrievers.” PLOS Genetics.
- Ujvari, B. et. al. 2018. “Genetic diversity, inbreeding and cancer.” Royal Society.
- Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW). 2012. “Labrador Retriever: Elbow Dysplasia (Fragmented Medial Coronoid Process).”
- Gough, A. Thomas, A. O’Neill, D. 2018. “Breed Predispositions to Disease In Dogs and Cats.” Wiley Blackwell.